Glossary of Terms

Against the Grain
Perpendicular to the direction of the grain in the paper . When a product gets printed against the grain, the flexibility of the paper can be thicker or thinner. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.

 

Aliasing
A defect which occurs when a graphic file does not have enough resolution to reproduce image detail and causes visible jagged lines along the edges.

 

Alteration
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.

 

Anti-aliasing
Technique of filling the edges of an object with pixels to eliminate jagged lines and make it appear smoother.

 

Aqueous Coating (AQ)
It is used to protect and enhance the printed piece. Aqueous coating is applied to all 100lb gloss book and 100lb gloss cover.

 

Artwork
In printing, this is the original copy which includes all text, graphics, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Sometimes also called Art.

 

Back up
To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.

 

Bind
Usually refers to the joining of leafs or signatures together of multi-page printed jobs, with either wire, glue or other means. Examples of jobs that are bound include some calendars, books, and catalogs.

 

Bindery
The processes that takes place after the printing has been complete. This includes cutting, scoring, folding, drilling, collating, stitching, and gluing.

 

Bitmap Images
Computerized image made up of a collection of dots or pixels; these images appear blocky when you zoom in; also known as raster images.

 

Blanket
In offset printing, a blanket is a rubber-surfaced fabric that is clamped around a cylinder. The image is transferred from the plate to the blanket, and once the sheet is fed through the press, the blanket is what transfers the image to the sheet.

 

Bleed
Printed colors that extend past the edge of a page. To cut the job to its actual size the processor has to make sure the job gets printed with 1/8 of an inch bleed some jobs may require more than that. For example if the job is a business card (3.5" x 2") the file size with bleed would be (3.625" x 2.125").

 

Borders
An outline around graphics, text or edge of a sheet. Read our guidelines on borders. Brightness: Refers to the percent of light reflected back from a sheet of paper as measured by a light meter reading. Contrast is reduced and highlights are not as strong when paper with a lower brightness is used for a printed piece. Depending on paper brand the papers have different brightness grades.

 

C2S paper
Paper coated on both sides. Our 14pt and 16pt paper are examples of C2S. (AQ Coating or UV Coating are seperate options and are not effected by this)

 

Card Stock
Also called cover stock. Mostly heavyweight papers are called card stock. The thickness of card stock is indicated with point sizes such as 14pt, 16pt. Some people will also refer to 100lb gloss cover as a card stock.

 

CMYK
The primary colors used in 4-color printing. CMYK are used to reproduce full color on the printed sheet. CMYK also called PROCESS COLOR

C: Cyan (Blue)
M: Magenta (Red)
Y: Yellow
K: Key (Black)

 

Coating
The mixture of clay materials that are applied to paper to improve the smoothness of the paper's surface and improve ink holdout during the printing process. Examples are Aqueous coating (AQ) and UV coating. UV coating adds a gloss finish to the product and also improves the vibrancy of the printed colors.

 

Collate
The placement of printed sheets in numerical or alphabetical order.

 

Color Correction
The process of adjusting and improving color qualities such as color balance and contrast, to achieve desirable colors.

 

Color Gamut
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.

 

Color Shift
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

 

Color Types
4:4 (4 over 4) - 2 sided
full color on front and on back
4:0 (4 over 0) - 1 sided
full color on front

 

Computer-to-Plate (CTP)
A technology that enables transfer of digital data directly to a metal plate for printing, eliminating the use of conventional films.

 

Copy
Any material (text or artwork) to be used in printing a piece.

 

Cover Paper
A category of thick paper commonly used for covers of books, brochures, menus, and catalogs covers.

 

Crop Marks
Lines printed in the margin of sheet that indicates to the cutter and bindery where the finished product should be trimmed. They are also used to show what part of a photo should be used and what part should be cropped off.

 

Cutting Tolerance
The margin of error that a cutting machine for paper is allowed to vary from in normal, reasonable production. Standard cutting tolerances are 1/32 inch to 1/8 inch.

 

Cyan
Shade of blue; one of four basic ink colors used in 4 color printing process.

 

Die
This is a device made out of sharp steel that is used to cut and score, irregular shapes.

 

Die Cutting
A specific shape like circle, star, etc (any designs that cannot be done by a straight cut) which is cut by a metal blade. Door hangers are a popular product which requires die cutting.

 

Dot Gain
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.

 

Dots Per Inch (dpi)
A measurement of resolution of input, output and display devices. 300 dpi means that when printed, each square inch of your image will contain 90,000 pixels (dots), the higher the dpi (the more pixels per inch) the more crisp the printed image will be. Our electronic (digital files) have to have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Anything less than that is considered as low resolution and may appear blurry when printed.

 

Finished Size / Trim Size
The size of a printed product after all production operations have been completed.

 

Finishing
Operations to a document after it has been printed. The finishing operations could include bindery work such as, folding, trimming, binding, die cutting, inserting or any post press process that must be completed.

 

Flat Size
The size of a printed product after printing and trimming but before any finishing operations that affect its size, such as folding.

 

Folding
The process of bending printed sheets in a specific area. Folding is one of our popular bindery jobs.

 

Double Parallel Fold
A type of fold where the piece is folded in half and then folded in half again. The folds are parallel to each other. Also known as a quarter fold.

 

Half Fold
Is fold in half.

 

Roll Fold
A fold where a three panel piece has both side sections folded inward, one on top of the other each section is approximately 1/3 the length of the piece.
Also known as a C-fold or letter-fold.

 

Z Fold
A paper fold represented by back and forth folds into three panels.

 

Full Bleed
Printing that goes to the edge of all four sides of the page.

 

Gang, Gang-Printing, Gang-Run
To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called a combination run, or gang-run.

 

Gloss Finish
A coating on paper that provides a higher reflection of light, which results in a shiny appearance. Gloss coatings reduce ink absorption, which allows excellent contrast and color definition.

 

Gloss Paper
Paper with a gloss finish, usually used for higher quality printing. Examples are 100lb gloss book, and 100lb gloss cover.

 

Grain
The direction in which the fibers of a paper lie.

 

Grayscale
An image made up of a range of densities of black ink.

 

Grippers
The metal fingers on printing presses that hold the paper and controls it as it passes through the press or cutting machine.

 

Grey Scale
A strip of paper containing gray tones ranging from white to black. So gray scale refers to black and white printed material.

 

Hairline
The thinnest possible line or space that is visible.

 

Head-to-Head
Printing on the front and back of a sheet is setup so that the top of both sides is printed at the same end of the sheet. You would turn the sheet like the page of a book to read the reverse side.

 

Head-to-Toe
Printing on the front and back of a sheet so that the tops of each side are printed at opposite ends from each other. The top of one side is opposite the bottom of the other. You would turn the sheet over from top to bottom to read the reverse side. Also referred to as head-to-tail or tumble.

 

Hickey
A spot on a printed sheet that appears as a small white circle with ink in the center, caused by particles such as dirt, dust, or bits of paper.

 

Ink Jet
A printing technology in which liquid ink is sprayed through tiny nozzles onto the paper in a pattern of dots, forming the image on the paper. Jobs with AQ or UV coating cannot be ink jet printed.

 

Landscape
Printing a page so that when positioned for reading the width is greater than the height.

 

Margin
The non-printed areas around the image area of a page.

 

Magenta
Also known as process red; one of the 4 basic ink colors in process color printing; "M" in abbreviation CMYK.

 

Matte
Dull non-glossy finish.

 

Pen End Envelope
An envelope with an opening along its short dimension.

 

Open Side Envelope
An envelope with an opening along its longest dimension.

 

Order Number
Customers get order numbers automatically when they place an order online.

 

Overprinting
Printing an image over an area that has already been printed. In printing process colors, one process color is printed over another creating a secondary color, which is a combination of two primary colors. Sometimes in the files that customers send us there will be overprinting issues. Such as type or logos not printing. Customers should be aware that we do not check for this and their overprinting situation must be evaluated before sending the files to us.

 

Overruns / Overs
The quantity of items produced over the quantity that was originally ordered. Also referred to as any paper spoiled in the process of printing. For example if our batch is 1000 quantity batch we always overrun 150-200 sheets.

 

Pantone Matching System (PMS)
A registered name for an ink color matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colors. To do so we use a pantone book. It contains pantone colors with their closest CMYK values.

 

Paper Grain
The direction in which the fibers line up during the manufacturing process. It is easier to fold, bend, or tear the paper along the same direction of the fibers. Cut sheet laser printers generally use long grain paper in which the grain runs parallel to the long side of the paper, resulting in better performance through the laser printer.

 

Perforation
Creating a series of holes so that the paper can be torn more easily along the line that is formed. Postage stamps and tear-off cards are common products that require perforation.

 

Pixel
The smallest unit of a digitized image created by a digital device, such as a computer, camera, or scanner. Pixel is short for "picture element." The more pixels per inch the better the resolution. On computer monitors, the display is divided into rows and columns containing thousands or millions of pixels. Each pixel is composed of three dots representing the three color channels of red, green, and blue light that are necessary for creating a color image on computer monitors and television screens. Because of their small size, the pixels appear to merge, simulating a continuous tone image, but when magnified they appear to be tiny square blocks of light, as shown in the illustration.

 

Postage
Payment for delivery service that is affixed or imprinted to a mail piece, usually in the form of a postage stamp, permit imprint, or meter stamp.

 

Presentation Folder
Inner pocket with round cut corner: (1 or 2, left & right pockets are optional) Inner pocket with straight cut corner: (1 or 2, left & right pockets are optional) Business card slit, left or right is also optional.

 

Press Proof
A proof that is produced on the press using the inks and paper specified for that order. We do not produce press proof unless we want to check color for a rejected job.

 

Press Run
The total quantity of pieces printed during one printing.

 

Price Break
The order quantity level at which the price of the paper or printed material goes down. Proofs: A copy of the artwork representing the finished product. It is used for review and approval. 1. PDF proof. PDF proof is an electronic proof.

 

Proofread
Checking a proof for errors or discrepancies from the original copy.

 

Quotation
A price, given by our company based on the specifications supplied for that product. We have an estimating department that can give a price quote for any custom job.

 

Raster Image
An image made up of entirely pixels. It's direct opposite would be an entirely vector image; made up of only shapes that are mathematically filled. Raster Image Processor (RIP) A device that translates data into dots or pixels.

 

Rasterize
To render an image, pixel by pixel, vertically and horizontally.

 

Register Marks
The printed marks used to align color separations for printing so that each color registers with each other.

 

Resolution
The measurement of output quality expressed in pixels (dots) per inch on a computer monitor or dots per inch on printed media. For example, a monitor displaying a resolution of 800 by 600 refers to a screen capable of displaying 800 pixels in each of 600 lines, which translates into a total of 480,000 pixels displayed on the screen. When referring to printed media, a 300 dpi (dots per inch) printer for example, is capable of outputting 300 dots in a one-inch line, which means that it has the ability of printing 90,000 distinct dots per square inch (300 x 300).

 

RGB
The additive primary colors, red, green and blue, used to display color in video monitors. Printing with a file in RGB color mode will produce a washed out appearance. 4over does not check files for RGB. That responsibility falls to the customer before submission of the files.

 

Rotation
The turning or positioning of text or an image at different degrees of orientation on a page.

 

Round Cornering
Using a machine to die cut the corners of forms, cards and books to create a rounded corner.

 

Saddle Stitching
The method of binding the pages of a section where the folded pages are stitched through the fold from the outside, using a wire staple (stapling).

 

Scoring
A crease applied, in a straight line, to a sheet of paper to allow it to fold easier and more accurately. Based on our equipment we score any sizes between: 3" x 4" (min) to 11" x 17" (max) on 100lb book, 14pt & 16pt papers. Score in half, is the most popular.

 

Specifications
Complete and precise description of features of a printing job such as paper type, coating, quantity, printing, and binding type. Abbreviated "Specs". Specs essentially is what your electronic job ticket. When you place a complete job order, the details are essentially your Specs.

 

Stock
The paper or material to be printed on.

 

Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done.

 

Template/Setup guides
A preset model that acts as a structure for setting up a similar product. We offer templates/Setup guides, for each product. The customers can download the templates online.

 

Trim/Cut line
1. The process of cutting the product to its finished size. The excess that is cut off is also referred to as the trim.
2. Combining various roll sizes to be slit from a full width roll from the paper machine so that an acceptable percentage of the salable width will be used.

 

Turnaround Time
The accumulated time between receipt of an order and completion of the finished product. Here at 4over we offer different types of turnaround depending on the product.

 

Uncoated
Paper with no treatment or coating on the surface. This refers to both a uncoated blank sheet before printing, and a printed sheet with no sealant applied after printing.

 

Under-run
Production of fewer copies than ordered by customer. We reserve the right to be over (by 5%) or under buy 10% ) the ordered quantity.

 

UV Coating
A liquid coating applied to the printed piece, which is then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. This coating is used to provide a protective coating to the printed image. Please note that you CAN NOT write or imprint on a uv coated jobs.

 

Vector Images
Images made up of solids, lines and curves that can be scaled or edited without affecting image resolution. Another way to put it is vector images are made up mathematical shapes, and raster images are made up individual dots. Vector images tend to be very small in size.

 

Window Envelopes
An envelope with a die cut opening that is intended to have information show through from the piece inside the envelope. Yellow Also known as process yellow; one of the 4 basic ink colors in process color printing; Y in abbreviation CMYK. Zip: Zipping is a way to compress electronic files A compressed file is considered "zipped."